Wine Grapes

The European grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is grown mostly for wine production. Evidence of wine production can be found in archeological excavations dating back to 5.000 – 6.000 BC, both in Georgia and Iran. Nowadays wine grapes are cultivated on both hemispheres, mostly between 30 to 50 degrees north and south of the equator, from Central Otago in New Zealand to Flin in Sweden. Main producers or wine are Italy, France, USA, Spain and China.

Most wine-producing vineyards are rain-fed. The response of grapevines to water is well known. Irrigation contributes to higher yields, wider leaf area, stronger vegetative growth and larger berries.

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